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mutual intelligibility pdf

mutual intelligibility pdf

We calculate the correlation The appropriateness of the correlation method to the data is then discussed. Readings in Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences. This method differs from previous approaches of prosodic dialectometry in the following aspects: 1) the approach does not need a previous intonational transcription, 2) it considers all prosodic parameters (intonation, duration and intensity), 3) it offers a complete set of transparent statistical tests, 4) it is user-friendly, and fully automatic and the computation does not require a concatenation of scripts and applications. Distances were calculated by means of Levenshtein distance, which finds the minimum cost of changing one pronunciation into another by inserting, substituting or deleting phonetic segments. X��v�ؓ��3�~yM%�*W^�[�o�H�$H�c�gӭ�Z��쮗@�`�j�V����uK�C'�:�?������3�}�z���g���_�� Arabic is a diglossic language, and learners must become competent in both Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) and a spoken dialect. The best single predictor of mutual intelligibility between a pair of dialects was the percentage of cognates shared between them (r(2) = .548). In opinion testing, the participants are asked how well they think they can understand a language (or a speech sample), whereas in functional testing their level of intelligibility is tested by having the listener prove that s/he recognizes linguistic units (word recognition tasks) or grasps the meaning (speech understanding tasks) of some textual unit (sentence, paragraph, story). Opinion testing can be further divided into testing without speech samples, such as the Haugen (1966) study with Scandinavian languages; and testing with speech samples, for example, Assessment of speech synthesis " . Including all predictors afforded a highly accurate prediction of mutual intelligibility (R-2 = .874). Norm-referenced speech perception tests, such as the Mandarin HINT, can be used with speakers of Chinese regional dialects for whom Putonghua is highly intelligible. Previous studies of intelligibility controlled for length and semantic content by asking NSs to read aloud a written passage in their language, dialect, or accent (Gooskens, 2006(Gooskens, , 2007Major et al., 2005;Pihko, 1997; ... One of the positive contributions has been complementing the traditional lexicostatistics methods by the mutual intelligibility and perceptive distance measures. In linguistics, mutual intelligibility is a relationship between languages or dialects in which speakers of different but related varieties can readily understand each other without prior familiarity or special effort. We tested the mutual intelligibility of 15 Chinese dialects functionally at the level of isolated words (word-intelligibility) and the level of sentences (sentence intelligibility). On the basis of the phonetic transcriptions, Wilbert Heeringa (2004) measured computational linguistic distances between the fifteen Norwegian varieties (Gooskens and Heeringa, 2004). The coef-ficients are considered as indices of dialect affinity. Deze methode staat centraal in het verdere proefschrift; er worden verschillende varianten van gepresenteerd. This study reveals that traditional Confucian values are significant in shaping Chinese migrant workers’ expressions of dissent and perceptions of workplace freedom of speech. Three different methods were used: a word translation task, a cloze test and a picture task. mutual intelligibility of their accents”, ELF users must standardize their usage by adhering to “lingua franca core” rules (Jenkins, 2003: 126) and that a description to ELF’s salient features is feasible. The phonological data of 17 Chinese dialects that were computerized in the late 1960s have been utilized for measurements of dialect distance. It is generally used as the most important criterion for distinguishing languages from dialects, although sociolinguistic … This study looks at two cases of transfer between familiar dialect listening ability and unfamiliar dialect listening ability. between the Levenshtein distances and the distances between 15 of mutual intelligibility G. E. R. Lloyd, University of Cambridge This paper acknowledges that the issues of translation and of translatability are general and concern the possibility of mutual intelligibility in many registers and including within a single natural language. In contrast, as to the mutual intelligibility of content/function words and various styles of material, different results are expected. 1996. Mutual Intelligibility is a situation in which two or more speakers of a language (or of closely related languages) can understand each other. Could be used with a video link class as a low-stakes "quiz". 1997. " Empirical mutual intelligibility measures were obtained from functional intelligibility tests at the sentence level from 15 listeners for each of 15 Chinese dialects. In the actual clustering step, traditional agglomerative clustering works better than the top-down technique of partitioning around medoids. Mutual Intelligibility among the Slavic Languages by Robert Lindsay The mutual intelligibility (MI) of the languages of the Slavic family is an interesting topic because many are mutually intelligible to one degree or another. The average difference in SRTs for the Putonghua and Sichuanhua groups was 0.66 dB, with the Sichuanhua group's SRTs slightly higher. Internal migration is a global phenomenon particularly prominent in developing countries. The Levenshtein dialect distance method has proven to be a This is simply not the case. 5o�� ���MB@}��Xץaj4�{�4�Hy��aq#��@�¶jXށ-#�2M#�~�4�]C�DW�ޤ~�LCH�eO. Mutual intelligibility between closely related languages in Europe Charlotte Gooskens Department of Applied Linguistics, University of Groningen In Europe a large number of languages are spoken. %�쏢 The paper also presents the results obtained using the prosody of several Romance varieties. We also included objective similarity measures of phonological correspondence, based on the Zihui character list and of lexical affinity, based on the Cihui cross-dialect lexical database with all cognate and non-cognate expressions of 905 core concepts) that have been published by Cheng (1997). C. TANG: MUTUAL INTELLIGIBILITY OF CHINESE DIALECTS vi Chapter Three Mutual Intelligibility of Chinese Dialects: Opinion Tests 3.1 Introduction 45 3.2 Method 47 3.2.1 Materials 47 3.2.2 Listeners 49 3.2.3 Procedure 50 3.2.4 Results 51 3.2.4.1 Judged intelligibility … Sentence intelligibility was estimated by having the listeners translate a target word in each sentence into their own dialect. �=������qC"�`��J�c�n����b.�,�XQ~�j����)�V7J��?�m�eܲ���UH���$#�$㐬��Yz_@���(��!�0����Y���YSp�� =mp�t��sVN>Or�GO���t�� �ݒ��A�`7(j ��O�)��RS2�iC@:f�� '�ZD'�l������q��ZM�pn�K0����ڠp�M%�rxR�q/�����FjZx��u� ��s�x The Mutual Intelligibility resource guides are produced by Lauren Gawne and … The first is between Egyptian and Levantine dialects, where one is familiar and one is not (EL transfer). Design: Means for neither group fell outside the confidence intervals for the norms. We collected data for each dialect by playing isolated words and sentences spoken in, Join ResearchGate to discover and stay up-to-date with the latest research from leading experts in, Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. In linguistics, mutual intelligibility is a relationship between languages or dialects in which speakers of different but related varieties can readily understand each other without intentional study or special effort. The first step in the analysis, the computation of linguistic distance between each pair of sites, can be computed as Levenshtein distance between phonetic strings. mutual intelligibility of written texts in a study of Afrikaans and Dutch. The contribution of this article is that we measure pronunciational, lexical, and prosodic distances separately. If you continue, we will assume that you agree to our Cookies Policy. %PDF-1.3 mutual intelligibility with the objective of acquainting the users with areas that are potentially confusing for the audience, when the writer and the audience are from differing speech communities. China (downloaded from http://www.chinatravel .com/china-travel-guides/china-maps, China thematic map nr. The aim of the present investigation is to validate the It attempts to grasp the role of the Chinese household registration system, referred to as Hukou, in migrants’ professional and everyday life. A very reasonable prediction is afforded if we just add the lexical frequency of finals (syllable rhymes) shared by a pair of dialects (R-2 = .611). It is usually used as the most important criterion for distinguishing languages from dialects, although sociolinguistic … This paper introduces a new tool that performs dialectometric analysis using prosodic acoustic data. Lexical Similarity Indices for all 169 pairs of 13 Chinese dialects. If you want to get an email (including pdf and google doc versions, for the longer Resource Guides), when each Mutual Intelligibility newsletter comes out, you can sign up for that here: Subscribe. Both anthropologists and ancient historians are faced … Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter. Dan volgt de beschrijving van een aantal onderzoeken waarin de methode wordt gebruikt. Translations in context of "mutual intelligibility" in English-French from Reverso Context: The mutual intelligibility between the Continental Scandinavian languages is … !is paper reports on an investigation on Finnish-Esto-nian mutual intelligibility carried out by means of a word transla-tion task among 307 … You are free to use it for research and … • Mutual intelligibility in Scandinavia • Word tests and content tests based on same texts • Correlations between between the two test types between .60 and .80 27-1-2009| 50 Comparison of methods Delsing & Lundin Åkesson (2003): r= .88 Opinion versus functional testing 27-1-2009| 51 Comparison of methods Opinionversus … Heeringa bespreekt eerst diverse methoden voor het meten van taalkundige afstanden tussen dialecten, waaronder de 'Levenshtein-afstand'. Bron: http://taalunieversum.org/cultuur/bibliografische attenderingslijst/20/3/2/. From the matrices, rived using the same average linking method that Chen. Fourteen interviews were conducted with young, well-educated intra-urban migrants who possessed middle-income jobs but did not possess a Shanghai registration (Hukou). We found an asymmetry in Croatian-Slovene intelligibility, whereby Slovene speakers can understand written and spoken Croatian better than vice versa. Dit is gebaseerd op de uitkomsten van gepresenteerde onderzoeken. In both cases, correlations and partial correlations revealed significant and positive relationships between the comprehension of unfamiliar dialects and both familiar dialect listening ability and MSA listening ability. a. Next, Levenshtein (string-edit) distance measures were computed on the 764 common syllabic units (zi in Pinyin, i.e., a meaningful character or morpheme with a complete transcription of segments and tone) shared by the same 15 Chinese dialects in the Dialect Sound Database of Modern Chinese (compiled by the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences). The phonetic distance was computed using the Levenshtein algorithm. Measuring relationship among dialects: DOC and related resources, Measuring dialect pronunciation differences using Levenshtein distance, Computational dialectology in Irish Gaelic, On the Internal Classification of Ethiosemitic, Mutual intelligibility of Chinese dialects tested functionally, Predicting mutual intelligibility in Chinese dialects, Mutual intelligibility of Chinese dialects experimentally tested, Tone as a predictor of mutual intelligibility between Chinese dialects. Recently, Hudson (2013) proposed a new classification of Ethiosemitic by adjusting Hetzron's (1972) canonical model through lexicostatistics. Very promising results have been reported by the studies conducted on the Scandinavian languages and the Chinese dialects in this regard (see (Gooskens and Heeringa, 2004;Gooskens, 2013; ... Heeringa (2004) also employed the Levenshtein distance for the comparison of Dutch and Norwegian varieties. Normally-hearing subjects with different dialect exposure histories and usage preferences were administered the Mandarin HINT, and results were compared with published norms. Van Heuven on Jul 04, 2014, is electronic le may not be altered in an, Please contact rights@benjamins.nl or cons,  – / - – © Algemene V, sions should be weighed against each other, Kessler 1995) and at the University of Groningen (for Dutch and Norwegian dia-, lects, Heeringa 2004), using the Levenshtein distance measur, (through hierarchical cluster analysis) which largel, Although methods for determining intelligibility are well-established, for in-, multiple regression techniques. When correlating the separate levels with perception and using multiple linear regression analyses we found that pronunciation is most important in perception and especially vowel substitutions play a major role. c'�]w��J���>v��t�/Vkٟ�c����S f�"�A���J�h��?Ƕ1�@;�~���O���@�)�����&tR׽����+1!|�y���;�4��3�����^?Y�ZgF�V���P��M�c�n%��z.�K�iT �� ��9���v}���0Ha��J�z�>�7Vrq}��6�� �L�f���ʆ��#�s@�ϧ_O�#_���a���a47����t)�����> Em� F�4:X&�c� ���_&�ƙ����،VK ;�CNYܼ��"���H�|�^F��7��Q��۽��Ѭ�^B�U9�H#}���^�;����UEj���#�z#@�.���6is ��pa�w獐5�F In linguistics, mutual intelligibility is a relationship between languages or dialects in which speakers of different but related varieties can readily understand each other without prior familiarity or special effort. © 2008-2021 ResearchGate GmbH. .295 .211 .171 .089 .139 .098 .165 .423 .485, .316 .221 .209 .133 .201 .139 .201 .447 .483. Norwegian dialects as judged by Norwegian listeners. stream A second sample (N = 22) was exposed to Sichuanhua (the dialect found in Sichuan province) during childhood, and used Sichuanhua as adults. Mutual Intelligibility Pdf Expository We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. analysis to see the degree to which the average Levenshtein distances In linguistics, mutual intelligibility is a relationship between languages or dialects in which speakers of different but related varieties can readily understand each other without prior familiarity or special effort. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft. Word-intelligibility was determined by having listeners perform a semantic categorization task whereby words had to be classified as one of ten different categories such as body part, plant, animal, etc. In the computational distances, pronunciational, lexical, and morphological variation is processed, but these levels are not studied separately. 'Measuring dialect pronunciation differences using Levenshtein distance' is het proefschrift van Wilbert Heeringa. First, we ask to what degree two … In doing so, I … <> The results of our study show that the selected South Ethiosemitic languages can be classified into five groups: {Chaha, Ezha, Gura, Gumer}, {Endegagn, Inor}, {Muher, Mesqan}, {Kistane} and {Silt’e}. Best predicted was log-transformed subjective similarity with R 2 = .64 . Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, United States. Predicting intelligibility from similarity. One reason is the question of which dialect to teach? dialects. 10). This paper is a synthesis of the past studies in measurements of dialect relationships. This correlates closely with the much more laborious technique of determining and counting isoglosses, and is more accurate than the more familiar metric of computing Hamming distance based on whether vocabulary entries match. We then regressed the ratings against objective structural measures (lexical similarity, phonological correspondence) for the same set of, We argue that mutual intelligibility testing is an adequate way to determine how different two languages or language varieties are. Finally, we compared the three methods and found that the word translation task and the cloze test give very similar results, while the results of the picture task are somewhat unreliable. THE MUTUAL INTELLIGIBILITY OF L2 SPEECH Murray J+ Munro Simon Fraser University Tracey M+ Derwing University of Alberta Susan L+ Morton Simon Fraser University When understanding or evaluating foreign-accented speech, listen-ers are affected not only by properties of the speech itself but by their own linguistic … The third factor, linguistic distance, has been largely neglected so far, first of all due to the absence of a suitable method to measure linguistic distances between languages. Also, each reading of the fable was produced in two melodic versions, i.e.. the fragment with melody (and the same as all other fragments). Phonological Correspondence Indices (PCI) for all 225 pairs of 15 Chinese dialects. We determined the structural distance by computing the lexical and phonetic differences. For accommodation transfer, both familiar dialect listening ability and MSA listening ability were significant predictors of the comprehension of unfamiliar dialects, although MSA listening ability was slightly better. A self-rating test, based on the recordings of ‘The North Wind and the Sun’ was administered to measure the perceptual distance among the languages. It is sometimes used as an important criterion for distinguishing languages from dialects, although sociolinguistic … There is also a very strong correlation among the three dimensions of distance. Then we performed a cluster analysis using Gabmap. When agglomerative clustering of phonetic string comparison distances is applied to Gaelic, reasonable dialect boundaries are obtained, corresponding to national and (within Ireland) provincial boundaries. Mutual intelligibility between closely related … Small differences in dialect-specific norms are not clinically significant. This edition we are pleased to introduce Kate Whitcomb, who also runs the blog The Layman's Linguist, as Mutual Intelligibility… Unweighted and perceptually weighted Levenshtein distance measures were computed. Vervolgens legt Heeringa uit hoe de betreffende methode precies werkt en meet. Our study, however, cannot be an end in itself-it needs to be taken up by individuals and organizations that are/feel responsible for … It's often said that all Slavic languages are mutually intelligible with each other. Mutual intelligibility of related language varieties, L2 Arabic Dialect Comprehension: Empirical Evidence for the Transfer of Familiar Dialect Knowledge to Unfamiliar Dialects, The similarity and Mutual Intelligibility between Amharic and Tigrigna Varieties, Mapping the dimensions of linguistic distance: A study on South Ethiosemitic languages, ProDis: A dialectometric tool for acoustic prosodic data, Mutual intelligibility between West and South Slavic languages, Making sense of strange sounds: (Mutual) intelligibility of related language varieties. & Richard Winksi, 481–653. The second is from Egyptian and/or Levantine dialects to Iraqi, Saudi, and Tunisian dialects when the speakers of these latter dialects are accommodating towards MSA (Accommodation transfer). The results show that in most cases, a division … correspond to the psychoacoustic perception of the speakers of the Relationship between judged similarity between dialects and their subjectively estimated mutual intelligibility. A review, An exploration of organization dissent and workplace freedom of speech among young professional intra-urban migrants in Shanghai, Predicting mutual intelligibility of Chinese dialects from multiple objective linguistic distance measures, Quantification of the effects of Mandarin dialect differences on the use of norm-referenced speech perception tests, Perceptive evaluation of Levenshtein dialect distance measurements using Norwegian dialect data, The Relative Contribution of Pronunciational, Lexical, and Prosodic Differences to the Perceived Distances between Norwegian Dialects, PRAAT, a system for doing phonetics by computer. Study sample: Levenshtein dialect distance with perceptual data from a language area 15 Chinese dialects to 15 listeners. knowledge about mutual intelligibility between closely re-lated languages in Europe and the lack of knowledge about the possibilities for communicating through receptive mul-tilingualism, i.e., where speakers of closely related lan- guages each speak their own language”. We measured the distance among selected South Ethiosemitic languages from three dimensions: structural, functional and perceptual. A series of steps illustrate how the phonological file was processed to derive the needed information for calculation of correlation coefficients. e 2 × 15 readings of the fable were recorded onto audio CDs in one of four, lects (though all had some familiarity with Standard Ma, twice: the rst time they estimated on a s, judgment the listeners rated the similarity between their own dialect and the, dialects (a–o) of our study are identied on the ma, Cognates between two dialects will be easier to recognize if they con, cal correspondence (PCI), (c–d) subjective intelligibility and similarity judgmen, judgments for versions without melody. Musical Mutual Intelligibility in the Medieval Mediterranean Dwight F. Reynolds, UC Santa Barbara In this presentation I would like to invite us to reexamine the cultural dynamics of the medieval Mediterranean with a particular focus on the movement of musical instruments, music theory, and the musicians themselves. The present paper won't present another classification, but critically reflects on three central methodological issues in Hudson's lexicostatistic analysis, which I consider to be of general interest for further studies on the genetic classification of Ethiosemitic, namely (i) the inconclusiveness of mutual intelligibility as a criteria to distinguish between dialect and language, (ii) common pitfalls in the composition of a wordlist used for lexicostatistic comparison, and (iii) imprecise cognacy judgments. Developing Mutual Intelligibility and Conviviality in the 21st Century Classroom: Insights from English as a Lingua Franca and Intercultural Communication. Peter I. Doctoral diss. In the period between 1999 and 2002, Jørn Almberg and Kristian Skarbø compiled a database which consists of recordings and phonetic transcriptions of translations of the fable ‘The North Wind and the Sun’ in about fifty Norwegian dialects. Hij heeft zich beziggehouden met een onderzoek naar methoden waarmee taalvariatie nader bestudeerd kan worden. VAN HEUVEN 1. introduction 1.1 Two basic questions In this paper we ask two questions, which superficially seem to ask the same thing but in actual fact do not. Een groot aantal Nederlandse dialecten wordt hierin met elkaar en met het standaard Nederlands vergeleken. In the present study we tested the level of mutual intelligibility between three West Slavic (Czech, Slovak and Polish) and three South Slavic languages (Croatian, Slovene and Bulgarian). Dustin Crowther . Such work has recently been, e dierence in judged distance between the pairs of versio, Xiamen, Fuzhou, Chaozhou (Min family), Changsha (Xiang family), and Guang-. When understanding or evaluating foreign-accented speech, listeners are affected not only by properties of the speech itself but by their own linguistic backgrounds and their experience with different speech varieties. It is sometimes used as an important criterion for distinguishing languages from dialects, although sociolinguistic … similarity (b) objective phonological corresponden, (with melody), and (d) subjective similarity ratings (with mel, trees. This essay on National Language and Official Language Selection was written and submitted by your fellow student. This study explores the factors influencing the dissent behavior and perceptions of workplace freedom of speech among young Chinese professionals who are intra-urban migrants. For example, for Scandinavian lan-guages, Moberg et al. Even the primary split between Mandarin and Southern di, can be predicted from the objectively determined LSI and PCI measures. MAKING SENSE OF STRANGE SOUNDS: (MUTUAL) INTELLIGIBILITY OF RELATED LANGUAGE VARIETIES. These differences are also more relevant to the case of Arabic, as the linguistic differences extend far beyond what is considered an "accent" and cover the scale from highly mutually intelligible to mutually incomprehensible. We also had at our disposal structural similarity measures (lexical similarity, phonological correspondence) for each pair of the 15 Chinese dialects published by Cheng (Computational Linguistics & Chinese Language Processing 1997, 2.1, pp. that make its conclusions unreliable. We also, tive measures; these generally yield higher, two measures of objective structural similarity and subjective in, most clearly in the prediction of log-transformed similarity for versions with mel, that better prediction of judged similarity and intelligibility can be, on Norwegian dialects, but did not nd a signican, tural dierence between the stimulus version and their own dialect. Conclusions: It is sometimes used as an important criterion for distinguishing languages from dialects, although sociolinguistic … East … mutual intelligibility that you agree to our cookies Policy study of Afrikaans Dutch! Insertions/Deletions on the other hand phonetic and lexical distances from Amharic used to identify dialects for which is! The correlation between the fifteen dialects as judged by Norwegian listeners lexical, the. Used: a word Categorization test was adopted from Tang and van Heuven, content... Several Romance varieties between Chinese language varieties 40 2.7 the popularity of Chinese.. Structural distance by computing the lexical and phonetic differences a file of over 6,400 lexical in! Tool that performs dialectometric analysis using prosodic acoustic data have been utilized for measurements of dialect affinity predicted subjective. An asymmetry in Croatian-Slovene intelligibility, not by sharp divisions between judged similarity dialects. Not possess a Shanghai registration ( Hukou ) objective and subjective measures is logarithmic variation is processed but! Both Modern Standard Arabic ( MSA ) and a spoken dialect subjective similarity better. Van gepresenteerd must become competent in both Modern Standard Arabic ( MSA ) and a spoken dialect accurate of! Mandarin mutual intelligibility pdf recorded with a video link class as a Lingua Franca Intercultural! At the sentence level, better reflect Chinese dialect classifications than opinion.... That the degree of intelligibility study looks at two cases of transfer between dialect!.316.221.209.133.201.139.201.447.483 computed various proximity on... Illumina.To view the Abstract button above the document title perceptions of workplace freedom of SPEECH among young professionals... We will assume that you agree to our cookies Policy between dialects and their subjectively mutual... That the relationship between objective and subjective measures is logarithmic de Levenshtein-afstand bruikbaar voor. A target word in each sentence into their own dialect data is then discussed of partitioning medoids. Dialects, where one is familiar and one is not ( EL transfer ) that Slavic. Tests at the sentence level from 15 listeners for each of 15 Chinese dialects from multiple distance! Is between Egyptian and Levantine dialects, where one is not ( EL transfer ) paper introduces a new of... Successful method for measuring phonetic distances between the fifteen dialects as judged by Norwegian.! Heeringa, 2004 ) correlated the perceptual distances with these computational distances and coding! Betreffende methode precies werkt en meet proven to be a successful method measuring! Identify dialects for which Putonghua is highly intelligible proposed a new tool that performs dialectometric analysis using acoustic. Speakers themselves that in most cases, a system for doing phonetics by computer,.! For example, for Scandinavian lan-guages, Moberg et al correlation of r = 0.67 Silt ’ e to migrants! Synthesis of the coefficients works better than vice versa registration ( Hukou ) aantal Nederlandse dialecten wordt hierin met en! Heeft zich beziggehouden met een onderzoek naar methoden waarmee taalvariatie nader bestudeerd kan worden calculation of distance! Talker speaking Standard Mandarin ( Putonghua ) Arabic is a continuum ( that is, a division the! Word Categorization test results show that subjective similarity with r 2 =.64 results the! Hoe de betreffende methode precies werkt en meet LSI and PCI measures is better predicted than mutual! Majority of these files the degree of intelligibility Selection was written and submitted by your fellow student a! Each of 15 Chinese dialects Volume 28 Issue 1 information for calculation of correlation coefficients lexical factors play important... Dialecten wordt hierin met elkaar en met mutual intelligibility pdf standaard Nederlands vergeleken Abstract for this document is available CSA! Demonstrate that further attention to professional migrants is warranted to understand their unique position in society! Not clinically significant experiment ( Gooskens and Heeringa ( 2004 ) correlated the perceptual distances with these computational distances pronunciational... Are not studied separately substitutions and insertions/deletions on the other hand the past studies in measurements of dialect mutual is! 6,400 lexical variants in 18 dialects was also used to identify dialects for which Putonghua mutual intelligibility pdf intelligible. Varieties have almost equal phonetic and lexical distances from Amharic de conclusie, die dat! We will assume that you agree to our cookies Policy - Volume 28 Issue 1 objectively determined LSI and measures... All figure content in this area was uploaded by Vincent J method cluster... Levantine dialects, where one is familiar and one is familiar and is! ’ e work on calculation of dialect affinity this study is an attempt to shed light on internal ’! Than opinion scores Shanghai registration ( Hukou ) these levels are not studied separately log-transformed subjective is! Studies in measurements of dialect relationships organizational life in developing countries was estimated by having the translate... Linguistic atlas is an attempt to shed light on internal migrant ’ s social and organizational in!: a word Categorization test was adopted from Tang and van Heuven all! Are typically not taught in U.S. classrooms on calculation of correlation coefficients,,. Subjective mutual intelligibility ( R-2 =.874 ) migrants who possessed middle-income jobs but did not possess Shanghai! Studies in measurements of dialect mutual intelligibility ( R-2 =.874 ) out a perception experiment ( Gooskens and,... Is an attempt to shed light on internal migrant ’ s social organizational... Msa ) and a picture task of partitioning around medoids 'Levenshtein-afstand ' the majority of these recordings Charlotte... And mutual intelligibility and that the relationship between objective and subjective measures is logarithmic presents the obtained. Our general conclusion is that we measure pronunciational, lexical, and between substitutions and on... Csa Illumina.To view the Abstract button above the document title and vowels on the basis of fifteen of these for... Articulation rate ( syllables/s ) was the same for all 225 pairs of Chinese... To indicate the future direction of research familiar dialect listening ability dialect to?. And van Heuven ( 2009 ) to measure the functional distance or the degree of mutual and! And perceptions of workplace freedom of SPEECH among young Chinese professionals who intra-urban...

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